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Zika Virus: Treatment, Symptoms, Risk

Introduction

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.

Symptoms:

Signs and symptoms of Zika virus are vague and can last for up to 1 week. Diagnosis of the virus is typically confirmed with a blood test.

Symptoms of Zika virus include:

  1. rash
  2. joint pain
  3. conjunctivitis(red eyes)
  4. muscle pain
  5. headache
  6. pain behind the eyes
  7. vomiting
  8. Fever

Infection with the Zika virus is rarely severe enough to warrant hospitalization, and it is rarer still for an individual to die as a result.

Treatment:

Zika is typically diagnosed after a series of blood tests. There are no vaccines or medications available to prevent or treat Zika infections, though. If Zika is found, a medical professional will likely prescribe plenty of rest and fluids to help the body naturally combat the infection

Sedition law in india and most high profile cases

 Sedition

Section 124-A of the Indian Penal Code, named ‘Sedition’, explains sedition in wide and magnanimous terms as whoever, by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards, the Government established by law in 1India, 1 shall be punished with 1imprisonment for life, to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment which may extend to three years, to which fine may be added, or with fine.

 

Here is a list of 5 famous people who were charged with sedition in 21 century :-

1) Kanhaiya Kumar: The JNUSU leader is facing sedition charges for allegedly shouting anti-India slogans during a controversial event on parliament attack convict Afzal Guru. His arrest has triggered a political storm with swords drawn between right wingers and left wingers.

2) Hardik Patel: Last month Gujarat crime branch filed chargesheet against patidar quota stir leader Hardik Patel and his five associates and accused them of sedition.

3) Akbaruddin Owaisi: Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen MLA Akbaruddin Owaisi was slapped with the charge of sedition by the district police of Karimnagar, for the purported hate speech he delivered at Nirmal on December 22, 2012.

4) Arundhati Roy*: Roy, Hurriyat leader Syed Geelani and others booked on charges of sedition by Delhi Police for their “anti-India” speech at a seminar in 2010.The filing of the FIR came following a directive from a local court on a petition filed by Sushil Pandit who alleged that Geelani and Roy made anti-India speeches at a conference on “Azadi-the Only Way” on October 21, 2010.Reacting to the court order, Roy had said that perhaps they should “posthumously file a charge against Jawaharlal Nehru” and cited 14 instances where the first Prime Minister has said about “the question of accession in any disputed territory or state must be decided in accordance with wishes of people”

5)Dr Binayak Sen was accused of sedition by the Chhattisgarh government. He, however, was granted bail on April 15, 2011, by the Supreme Court of India which said that no evidence of sedition was produced against the accused by the Chhattisgarh government.

 

Nehru Report, 1928

The Nehru Report of 28-30 August 1928 was a memorandum outlining a proposed new dominion status constitution for India. It was prepared by a committee of the All Parties Conference chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal Nehru acting as secretary. There were nine other members of this committee. The final report was signed by Motilal Nehru, Ali Imam, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Madhav Shrihari Aney, Mangal Singh, Shuaib Qureshi, Subhas Chandra Bose, and G. R. Pradhan. Qureshi disagreed with some of the recommendations.

 

The constitution outlined by the Nehru Report was for Indian enjoying dominion status within the British Commonwealth. Some of the important elements of the report:

  • Unlike the eventual Government of India Act 1935, it contained a Bill of Rights.
  • All power of government and all authority – legislative, executive and judicial – are derived from the people and the same shall be exercised through organizations established by, or under, and in accord with, this Constitution.
  • There shall be no state religion; men and women shall have equal rights as citizens.
  • There should be the federal form of government with residuary powers vested in the center.(Some scholars, such as Moore 1988 considered the Nehru Report proposal as essentially unitary rather than federal);
  • It included a description of the machinery of government including a proposal for the creation of a Supreme Court and a suggestion that the provinces should be linguistically determined.
  • It did not provide for separate electorates for any community or weightage for minorities. Both of these were liberally provided in the eventual Government of India Act 1935. However, it did allow for the reservation of minority seats in provinces having minorities of at least ten percent, but this was to be in strict proportion to the size of the community.

  • The language of the Union shall be Indian, which may be written either in Devanagari (Hindi/Sanskrit), Telugu, Kannada, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali or Tamil in character. The use of the English language shall be permitted.

 Non-Cooperation Movement 1922

The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. It aimed to resist British rule in India through nonviolent means. Protestors would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and picket liquor shops.

Gandhi was horrified. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a “sin” to cooperate with the “satanic” government.

The movement was undertaken to

(a) Restore the status of the ruler of Turkey;

(b) To avenge the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and other violence in Punjab; and

(c) To secure Swaraj (independence) for India.

Non-cooperation was recommended by Gandhi to Babu Muhammad Ali and Babu Shaukat Ali for the Khilafat Movement. After the failure of Khilafat Movement, the Congress decided that non-cooperation was the only way out for India.

Success and suspension

The success of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indian nationalists. Then on February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing, the police chowki (pron.-chau key) (station) was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.

Mahatma Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course, and was disappointed that the revolt had lost its non-violent nature. He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence, with police and angry mobs attacking each other back and forth, victimizing civilians in between. Gandhi appealed to the Indian public for all resistance to the end, went on a fast lasting 3 weeks, and called off the non-cooperation movement.

Rowlatt Act,1919

The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.

Passed on the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee and named after its president, British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, this act effectively authorized the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj for up to two years without a trial and gave the imperial authorities power to deal with all revolutionary activities.

On the report of the committee, well-known header by Justice Rowlatt, two bills were introduced in the central legislature in February 1919. These bills came to be known as “black bills”. They gave enormous powers to the police to search a place and arrest any person they disapproved of without well-known description of the bills at that time was: No Dalil, No Vakil, No Appeal i.e., no pleas, no lawyer, no Appeal. Despite much opposition, the Rowlatt act was passed in March 1919. The purpose of the act was to curb the growing nationalist upsurge in the country.

 

Partition of Bengal (1905): Agitation and Congress

The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905, by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal’s business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa. Hindus were outraged at what they recognized as a “divide and rule” policy, where the colonizers turned the native population against itself in order to rule, even though Curzon stressed it would produce administrative efficiency.

Effect Of Partition:

  1. This partition provided an impetus to the religious divide and the All India Muslim League and All India Hindu Mahasabha were formed. Both organizations aimed at fanning communal passions.
  2. the Indian National Congress began the Swadeshi movement that included boycotting British goods and public institutions, meetings and processions, forming committees, propaganda through the press, and diplomatic pressure. Hitherto untouched sections of Indian society participated in these movements, providing the base for later movements. The richness of the movement extended to culture, science, and literature.
  3. This Swadeshi movement was first of its kind, it reunites the harmony of Hindu-Muslim.
  4.  Rabindranath Tagore wrote Banglar Mati Banglar Jol as a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition.

 

Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms (Government of India Act, 1919)

The Government of India Act, 1919  also known as Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India.

The Act provided a dual form of government (a “diarchy”) for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the “transferred list”, were given to a Government of ministers answerable to the Provincial Council. The ‘transferred list’ included agriculture, supervision of local government, health, and education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged. These reforms represented the maximum concessions the British were prepared to make at that time. The franchise was extended, and increased authority was given to central and provincial legislative councils, but the viceroy remained responsible only to London.

Salient features of the Act were as follows:

  1. This Act had a separate Preamble which declared that Objective of the British Government is the gradual introduction of responsible Government in India.
  2. Diarchy was introduced as Provincial Level. Diarchy means a dual set of governments one is accountable another is not accountable. The provincial subjects were divided into two groups: One was reserved and another was transferred. The reserved subjects were kept with the Governor and transferred subjects were kept with the Indian Ministers. This division of subjects was basically what they meant by introducing the Diarchy.
  3. The Government of India Act of 1919, made a provision for classification of the central and provincial subjects. The Act kept the Income Tax as the source of revenue to the Central Government. However, for Bengal and Bombay for which, to meet their objections, a provision to assign them 25% of the Income-tax was made.
  4. No bill of the legislature could be deemed to have been passed unless assented to by the governor general. The later could, however, enact a Bill without the assent of the legislature.
  5. This Act made the central legislature bicameral. The lower house was the Legislative Assembly, with 145 members serving three-year terms (the model for today’s Lok Sabha); the upper house was the Council of States with 60 members serving five-year terms (the model for today’s Rajya Sabha)
  6. The Act provided for the establishment of a Public Service Commission in India for the first time.
  7. This act also made a provision that a statutory commission would be set up at the end of 10 years after the act was passed which shall inquire into the working of the system of the government. The Simon commission of 1927 was an outcome of this provision.
  8. The communal representation was extended and Sikhs, Europeans, and Anglo-Indians were included. The Franchise (Right of voting) was granted to the limited number of only those who paid certain minimum “Tax” to the government.
  9. The seats were distributed among the provinces not upon the basis of the population but upon the basis of their importance in the eyes of the government, on the basis of communities, and the property was one of the main basis to determine a franchise. Those people who had a property, taxable income & paid land revenue of Rs. 3000 were entitled to vote.
  10. The financial powers of the central legislature were also very much limited. The budget was to be divided into two categories, votable and non-votable. The votable items covered only one third of the total expenditure. Even in this spher, the Governor-General was empowered to restore any grant refused or reduced by the legislature, if in his opinion the demand was essential for the discharge of his responsibilities. Thus the Government of India Act provided for partial transfer of Power to the electorate through the system of diarchy. It also prepared the ground for the Indian Federalism, as it identified the provinces as units of fiscal and general administration.