Zika Virus: Treatment, Symptoms, Risk

Introduction

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.

Symptoms:

Signs and symptoms of Zika virus are vague and can last for up to 1 week. Diagnosis of the virus is typically confirmed with a blood test.

Symptoms of Zika virus include:

  1. rash
  2. joint pain
  3. conjunctivitis(red eyes)
  4. muscle pain
  5. headache
  6. pain behind the eyes
  7. vomiting
  8. Fever

Infection with the Zika virus is rarely severe enough to warrant hospitalization, and it is rarer still for an individual to die as a result.

Treatment:

Zika is typically diagnosed after a series of blood tests. There are no vaccines or medications available to prevent or treat Zika infections, though. If Zika is found, a medical professional will likely prescribe plenty of rest and fluids to help the body naturally combat the infection

 Non-Cooperation Movement 1922

The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. It aimed to resist British rule in India through nonviolent means. Protestors would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and picket liquor shops.

Gandhi was horrified. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a “sin” to cooperate with the “satanic” government.

The movement was undertaken to

(a) Restore the status of the ruler of Turkey;

(b) To avenge the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and other violence in Punjab; and

(c) To secure Swaraj (independence) for India.

Non-cooperation was recommended by Gandhi to Babu Muhammad Ali and Babu Shaukat Ali for the Khilafat Movement. After the failure of Khilafat Movement, the Congress decided that non-cooperation was the only way out for India.

Success and suspension

The success of the revolt was a total shock to British authorities and a massive encouragement to millions of Indian nationalists. Then on February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura, after violent clashes between the local police and the protesters in which three protesters were killed by police firing, the police chowki (pron.-chau key) (station) was set on fire by the mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.

Mahatma Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course, and was disappointed that the revolt had lost its non-violent nature. He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence, with police and angry mobs attacking each other back and forth, victimizing civilians in between. Gandhi appealed to the Indian public for all resistance to the end, went on a fast lasting 3 weeks, and called off the non-cooperation movement.

Rowlatt Act,1919

The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.

Passed on the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee and named after its president, British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, this act effectively authorized the government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj for up to two years without a trial and gave the imperial authorities power to deal with all revolutionary activities.

On the report of the committee, well-known header by Justice Rowlatt, two bills were introduced in the central legislature in February 1919. These bills came to be known as “black bills”. They gave enormous powers to the police to search a place and arrest any person they disapproved of without well-known description of the bills at that time was: No Dalil, No Vakil, No Appeal i.e., no pleas, no lawyer, no Appeal. Despite much opposition, the Rowlatt act was passed in March 1919. The purpose of the act was to curb the growing nationalist upsurge in the country.

 

Partition of Bengal (1905): Agitation and Congress

The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905, by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal’s business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa. Hindus were outraged at what they recognized as a “divide and rule” policy, where the colonizers turned the native population against itself in order to rule, even though Curzon stressed it would produce administrative efficiency.

Effect Of Partition:

  1. This partition provided an impetus to the religious divide and the All India Muslim League and All India Hindu Mahasabha were formed. Both organizations aimed at fanning communal passions.
  2. the Indian National Congress began the Swadeshi movement that included boycotting British goods and public institutions, meetings and processions, forming committees, propaganda through the press, and diplomatic pressure. Hitherto untouched sections of Indian society participated in these movements, providing the base for later movements. The richness of the movement extended to culture, science, and literature.
  3. This Swadeshi movement was first of its kind, it reunites the harmony of Hindu-Muslim.
  4.  Rabindranath Tagore wrote Banglar Mati Banglar Jol as a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition.

 

Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms (Government of India Act, 1919)

The Government of India Act, 1919  also known as Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India.

The Act provided a dual form of government (a “diarchy”) for the major provinces. In each such province, control of some areas of government, the “transferred list”, were given to a Government of ministers answerable to the Provincial Council. The ‘transferred list’ included agriculture, supervision of local government, health, and education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged. These reforms represented the maximum concessions the British were prepared to make at that time. The franchise was extended, and increased authority was given to central and provincial legislative councils, but the viceroy remained responsible only to London.

Salient features of the Act were as follows:

  1. This Act had a separate Preamble which declared that Objective of the British Government is the gradual introduction of responsible Government in India.
  2. Diarchy was introduced as Provincial Level. Diarchy means a dual set of governments one is accountable another is not accountable. The provincial subjects were divided into two groups: One was reserved and another was transferred. The reserved subjects were kept with the Governor and transferred subjects were kept with the Indian Ministers. This division of subjects was basically what they meant by introducing the Diarchy.
  3. The Government of India Act of 1919, made a provision for classification of the central and provincial subjects. The Act kept the Income Tax as the source of revenue to the Central Government. However, for Bengal and Bombay for which, to meet their objections, a provision to assign them 25% of the Income-tax was made.
  4. No bill of the legislature could be deemed to have been passed unless assented to by the governor general. The later could, however, enact a Bill without the assent of the legislature.
  5. This Act made the central legislature bicameral. The lower house was the Legislative Assembly, with 145 members serving three-year terms (the model for today’s Lok Sabha); the upper house was the Council of States with 60 members serving five-year terms (the model for today’s Rajya Sabha)
  6. The Act provided for the establishment of a Public Service Commission in India for the first time.
  7. This act also made a provision that a statutory commission would be set up at the end of 10 years after the act was passed which shall inquire into the working of the system of the government. The Simon commission of 1927 was an outcome of this provision.
  8. The communal representation was extended and Sikhs, Europeans, and Anglo-Indians were included. The Franchise (Right of voting) was granted to the limited number of only those who paid certain minimum “Tax” to the government.
  9. The seats were distributed among the provinces not upon the basis of the population but upon the basis of their importance in the eyes of the government, on the basis of communities, and the property was one of the main basis to determine a franchise. Those people who had a property, taxable income & paid land revenue of Rs. 3000 were entitled to vote.
  10. The financial powers of the central legislature were also very much limited. The budget was to be divided into two categories, votable and non-votable. The votable items covered only one third of the total expenditure. Even in this spher, the Governor-General was empowered to restore any grant refused or reduced by the legislature, if in his opinion the demand was essential for the discharge of his responsibilities. Thus the Government of India Act provided for partial transfer of Power to the electorate through the system of diarchy. It also prepared the ground for the Indian Federalism, as it identified the provinces as units of fiscal and general administration.

 

Morley-Minto Reforms (Indian Councils Act 1909)

To restore the stability of British Raj after Lord Curzon’s Bengal partition, INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1909 also known as Morley Minto reform, passed in British parliament in leadership of John Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State for India,

Major Provisions of Morley-Minto Reforms

The Act amended the Indian Councils Act 1861 and the Indian Councils Act 1892:

1. The members of the Legislative Councils, both in the centre and in the provinces, were to be of four categories: ex officio members (Governor General and the members of their Executive Councils), nominated official members (those nominated by the Governor General and were government officials), nominated non-official members (nominated by the Governor General but were not government officials) and elected members (elected by different categories of Indian people).

2. The maximum number of nominated and elected members of the Legislative Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 69, excluding ex officio members.

3. The maximum number of nominated and elected members of the provincial legislative councils, under a governor or lieutenant governor, was also increased. It was fixed as 50 in Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, and 30 in Punjab, Burma, and any lieutenant-governor province created thereafter. Legislative councils were not created for provinces under a chief commissioner.

4. The right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims.

5. Official members were to form the majority but in provinces, nonofficial members would be in majority.

6. The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss budgets, suggest amendments and even vote on them except items that were included as non-vote items. They were also entitled to ask supplementary questions during the legislative proceedings.

7. The Secretary of State for India was empowered to increase the number of the Executive Councils of Madras and Bombay from two to four.

8. Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs.

9. The Governor-General was empowered to nominate one Indian member to his Executive Council.

Shape Of You singer Ed Sheeran’s Mumbai concert dates are out

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After pop star Justin Bieber, ” Shape of You ” singer Ed Sheeran is also coming to India to perform at JioGarden BKC on Sunday, 19 November in Mumbai. the concert is the part of his world tour to support his third studio album, divide.

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The ticket prices will begin from Rs 4,750 and the registration for the tickets will begin on Tuesday, July 4, at 12 in the noon and he tickets will start going on sale from July 12.

“India is clearly emerging as a live entertainment destination, with fans here showing immense promise and appetite for international musical acts. We are eager to put India on the global entertainment map by providing access to millions of fans. We look forward to welcoming Ed Sheeran and are committed to ensure that the event is a phenomenal success,” said Kunal Khambhati, Head of Live Events of BookMyShow.