Partition of Bengal (1905): Agitation and Congress

The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905, by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal’s business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa. Hindus were outraged at what they recognized as a “divide and rule” policy, where the colonizers turned the native population against itself in order to rule, even though Curzon stressed it would produce administrative efficiency.

Effect Of Partition:

  1. This partition provided an impetus to the religious divide and the All India Muslim League and All India Hindu Mahasabha were formed. Both organizations aimed at fanning communal passions.
  2. the Indian National Congress began the Swadeshi movement that included boycotting British goods and public institutions, meetings and processions, forming committees, propaganda through the press, and diplomatic pressure. Hitherto untouched sections of Indian society participated in these movements, providing the base for later movements. The richness of the movement extended to culture, science, and literature.
  3. This Swadeshi movement was first of its kind, it reunites the harmony of Hindu-Muslim.
  4.  Rabindranath Tagore wrote Banglar Mati Banglar Jol as a rallying cry for proponents of annulment of Partition.



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